(pp.31-44) S. A. M. Saad, S. A. M. Osman, A. Aldoma and H. A. Suliman ‘Application of treated wastewater from oil refinery in irrigating some tree species in Khartoum State’, IJSR, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2017

IJSRSarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad
Department of Environment, National Center for Research, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Khartoum-Sudan

Sufyan A.M. Osman
Khartoum Refinery Company, Ministry of Oil, Khartoum-Sudan

Ahmed Aldoma
Faculty of Forestry, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Ministry of Higher Education, Khartoum-Sudan

Hind Abdallah Suliman
Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum, Ministry of Higher Education, Khartoum-Sudan

Problem: Sudan is currently facing a serious problem of disposal and reuse of waste water from different sources. In the oil industry, refinery waste water was estimated to be 20 million m3/annum. Evaporation ponds were established in order to treat the waste water for further use, mainly irrigating trees as shelter belts and wind breaks around the refinery area.
Objective: The ongoing tree planting efforts, using the refinery waste water for irrigation, seemed to be based on inadequate information regarding the use of the most suitable tree species in terms of both site adaptability and tolerance to the waste water quality. In addition, there were hazardous effects of waste water on the environment, mainly on soil characteristics.
Methodology: Six tree species (Acacia tortili, Eucalyptus camadulensis, Azadrichta indica, Grewia tennax, Eugenia jambolana, and Conocarpus erectus) were selected and used in a completely randomized block design in a field trial using refinery waste water for irrigation. Data were collected concerning plant growth parameters and performance throughout the experimentation period of 15 months. Soil samples were analysed after the application of waste water for quality assessment.
Findings: The results of the experiment revealed a significant difference between all six tree species in their tolerance to waste water. These differences included number of leaves, number of branches, plant height and stem diameter. The most suitable tree species found were Conocarpus erecta and Acacia tortilis, while the least tolerant tree was Grewia tenax. Soil analysis results revealed a remarkable change in some soil characteristics after waste water application, mainly electric conductivity, pH and minerals concentrations.
Value: Refinery waste water could be used for irrigation purposes, but only under certain circumstances. Proper treatment measures should be introduced before the use of waste water. Soil quality was also important and certain precautions should be implemented before irrigation.
Keywords: Reuse of wastewater; Quality of refinery wastewater; Soil quality
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Saad, S. A. M., Osman, S. A. M., Aldoma, A. and Suliman, H. A. (2017) ‘Application of treated wastewater from oil refinery in irrigating some tree species in Khartoum State’, Int. J. of Sudan Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.31-44.


1 Comment on (pp.31-44) S. A. M. Saad, S. A. M. Osman, A. Aldoma and H. A. Suliman ‘Application of treated wastewater from oil refinery in irrigating some tree species in Khartoum State’, IJSR, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2017

  1. Dears,

    It seems to be an interested invention in reusing this polluted wastewater.I just want to connect it with another idea which I was involved on it as a construction Engineer in our EX petroleum company called Bio-remediation Process, the question now could we link your researches with it in order to get the extreme benefit to our environment. For your reference the BIOREMEDIATION BIOLOGICAL PROCESS is as follow:

    Generally bioremediation is the optimization of the natural biodegradation process. Bacteria can alter and break down contaminants, transforming them into harmless substances.

    Phytoremediation can be defined as the use of plants to achieve the conditions necessary to facilitate the breakdown of contaminants.

    Wetland plants, such as reeds, transfer atmospheric oxygen down through their roots in order to survive in waterlogged conditions.

    This creates a healthier soil environment with pockets of both aerobic and anaerobic activity. These conditions provide a suitable environment for a wide range of microbial species to flourish.

    The most important thing No chemicals are added

    Hope this will clarify the idea.

    Many thanks

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