Shamsideen Olusegun Aroyeun, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria
Gabriel Olanrewaju Adegoke, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Janos Varga, University of Szeged, Hungary
Purpose: This work was carried out to study the potential of Aframomum danielli spice powder in reducing the negative effect of ochratoxin A in rats fed OTA contaminated chocolate.
Design/methodology/approach: The design comprised 4 x 4 factorial experiments using 20 female albino rats fed with ochratoxin A-contaminated chocolate with average body weights of 180g. The experimental diet consisted of ochratoxin A-spiked chocolate with 20µg/kg of OTA with varying levels of A. danielli incorporated at concentrations of 1000ppm, 1500ppm, 2000ppm and 2500ppm respectively. Ochratoxin A-contaminated chocolate without A. danielli served as the control. The chocolate was melted and administered in amounts of 2.0 mg/kg BW in 2.0ml of solution of 15% v/v ethanol isotonic saline subcutaneously administered at the base of the ear. The animals were kept inside in groups and they were fed with groats mix. Water was available ad libitum. After 10, 15, 20 and 30 days, blood was sampled from the vena cava cranial before feeding in the morning. The actual weights were taken at the start of the experiment and the final weights were taken after slaughter. Formation of free radical oxygen in phagocytes was detected via luminometer. At the expiration of the experiment, all animals were sacrificed after administration of overdose of anaesthetics followed by bleeding. Lung changes were examined. The number of eosinophils was determined in bone marrow smears sampled at autopsy. Ochratoxin A levels in the liver, lungs and spleen were also detected.
Findings: The results indicated changes in body mass development with different levels of ochratoxin A administered. The use of A. danielli did not support weight gain. Ochratoxin A levels in the liver, spleen, kidney and lungs were below serum levels by a factor of between 5 and 20, which also depended on the ochratoxin A dose and the A. danielli treatments. There was a significant reduction in OTA in all organs of the experimental animals with increase in the administration of A. danielli. A significantly high OTA concentration, however, occurred in the kidney.
Practical implications: Since OTA toxicity has been associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, which could lead to cell damage, the use of A. danielli has reduced all the cytotoxic effects on rats fed with chocolate treated with A. danielli compared with controls.
Originality/value: The use of A. danielli counteracted the negative effects of ochratoxin A as evidenced in this study.
Keywords: Reduction, Negative effects, A. danielli, Ochratoxin A, Chocolate