The following papers have been submitted for consideration:

From passive to active: Changing times in Diaspora engagement in Home Grown terrorism and Foreign Fighter trend

Author: David Otto, TGS Intelligence Consultants Ltd, UK

Purpose: This paper recognises the urgent need for policy makers to pay attention and address the key drivers that result in the active involvement of Africans in the diaspora as Foreign Fighters and Home – Grown terrorist – a peril on our doorsteps. Design /Methodology: This presentation is a critical exposure of a strategic change in time and factors largely responsible for the reasons why the African diaspora community in the UK and EU has evolved from passive to active role in radicalisation, and violent extremism. A comparative analysis of past and present non- State groups with Diaspora influence will be analysed. Findings: The African diaspora community in the UK and EU has shifted from passive to active involvement as foreign fighters and home grown terrorist in the past decade. Practical Implications: Diaspora involvement in VE can no longer be ignored and regarded as passive by UK/Western authorities. This means that the African Diaspora community is as vulnerable as their home communities. Since they are active participants, they should be engaged with as part of the overall solution. Social Implication: Particular communities should not be labelled or stigmatised. Prudence should not be turned to paranoia and profiling should not lead to alienation. Originality/value: Authorities seeking for solutions to global terrorism at home must recognise that Africans in the diaspora are equally active as home grown terrorist and engage as foreign fighters just like their Middle Eastern counter parts. Keywords: Africa Diaspora Radicalisation; Violent Extremism; Home Grown Terrorism; Foreign Fighters trend; Drivers of Diaspora violent extremism; Active and Passive Diaspora; Nigeria; Cameroon.

The most effective framework to capture and deploy knowledg in Sudan

Authors: Adil Eltigani, Skeam Business School, France and Mohamed Shamou, Ford Motor Company, UK

This paper is about design of a framework aimed at capturing the knowledge of Sudanese experts from all fields and utilising it for solving the country problems and help in the development process. The framework use sound knowledge of modern process design and management techniques and theories such as strategic planning, process flowcharts, quality management and performance measure. The framework discusses in the left-hand side the planning parts which start with the vision and mission of the Sudan Knowledge and how these can be cascaded top down to sub objectives in 5 stages. The middle part of the framework discusses the implementation and enablers that lead to realising the objectives from bottom up until the vision and mission are achieved. The right-hand side of the framework discuss the need for identifying Roles & Responsibilities and performance is measurement to ensure achievement of objectives.

Integrating Diaspora skills and expertise with infrastructure investment for high quality, easily accessible, sustainable services

Author: Rudi Page, Making Connections Work Ltd, UK

Abstract: Integrating Diaspora skills and expertise with infrastructure investment for high quality, easily accessible, sustainable services is dependent on knowledge-based disciplines with leadership capabilities and relevant competencies for implementing shared values, vision and communication strategies. These are based on trust-building mechanisms and partnerships that create an enabling environment for mobilizing intellectual capital, systems alignment, strategic alliances and support services that focus on  inclusive growth and poverty reduction. The Enhanced Leadership Insights (ELI) management model is a systematic approach to the traditional Diaspora leadership, management and involvement Model. ELI, is a facilitated framework designed to create and deliver value for stakeholders by co-ordinating assets, resources, skills and systems. The ELI Trade & Services Programme has indentified 4 inter-locking priorities; International Trade,  Logistics, Global Health and Sustainable Development across multi-sectoral supply and value chains. The afore-mentioned are critical to growth, productivity and innovation for promoting “International Trade as a tool for local economic development”.

Contextualizing social problems in the Diaspora: a case study of Sudanese youth in Malaysia

Author: Hunud Abia Kadouf, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Purpose: Malaysia has become a major destination for Sudanese youths particularly for education purposes. There are however, some impending social problems that have erupted hence adversely affecting their existential relationship with the host society. The diversified nature of these problems has apparently transcended their entire expectations. This paper identifies the increasing challenges and prevalent social problems among Sudanese youths in Malaysia and gives suggestions for mutual acceptance and tolerance. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study adopts mixed methodologies including qualitative, quantitative as well as comparative methods. The target groups are two categories of Sudanese Youths i.e., those who came at a mature age for study purposes (undergraduate, postgraduate and training) and those students -between the ages of 15 and 25years who were born in Malaysia. An attempt will also be made to engage in general discussions on the philosophy, concepts and theories of Diaspora in the light of the Sudanese youths’ precarious situation in Malaysia. Findings: Based on the empirical data, cybercrime, cyber-bullying, drug abuse, online-shamming, racial tension, cross-marriages, Third Culture Kids (TCK) syndrome and problems of integration seem to be the major challenges of Sudanese youths in Malaysia. Originality/Value: While the existing research are based on the general problems and concerns of the African diaspora, this research is one of the earliest attempts focussing on a specific group of African youth i.e., the Sudanese Youths in Malaysia. Practical implications: Recommendations are made to improve mutual acceptance and tolerance between the Sudanese youth and the host community and further enhance bilateral relations/socialization and reorientation of the Sudanese youth as stakeholders in the host country. The research proffers suggestions that could be adapted beyond the Sudanese diaspora communities to that of other African Diaspora communities currently residing in Malaysia. Keywords: Sudan; Youth; Problems; Diaspora; Malaysia; Africa

An Internet Mediated PhD Programme in Computer Science and Information Technology

Author: Izzeldin Mohamed Osman, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan

Abstract:  The PhD degree is a requirement for promotion in academia. The brain drain experienced by Sudan and other neighbouring countries has led to a scarcity of PhD supervisors. Thus, many young Sudanese college lecturers holding Master degrees find it difficult to do their PhD locally in Sudan. Furthermore, they cannot seek education abroad due to economic, social and family commitments.  This paper describes the PhD programme of Sudan University of Science and Technology which employs the internet to facilitate the utilization of the international human and technical resources by providing PhD supervisors from renowned universities all over the world. PhD students from all over Sudan and the neighbouring countries participate in lectures, seminars and receive research supervision through  interactive software (WebEX) providing audio, video and chat facilities.  Students have to come to the university once or twice a year for face to face exams, discussions with supervisors and presentations or progress seminars.

Keywords: Online learning, ICT in higher education, Online PhD

Climate change, conflict and displacement: Disaster Risk Reduction in Sudan

Author: Nuha Eltinay, London South Bank University, UK

The impact of climate change on urban livelihoods and natural biodiversity systems has long been observed worldwide. With a trend towards greater global urbanization, the pace in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region appears to be accelerating with urban population expected to double by 2030. Over the past 30 years Approximately 40 million people affected by disasters, with financial losses about US$20 billion. Taking into account the rise in population growth figures, and the ascend demographic changes in rural-urban migration patterns, the absence of land use policy management emerge significant urbanization challenges, increase the frequency in severity of Hydro-geological hazards, and the vulnerability to Natural Disasters. (World Bank, 2014). As migrants are often socially and geographically confined to informal settlements, city slum areas and shanty towns, the unconditional distribution of habitation density levels in coastal economic centers and along hazard prone rivers corridors, culminated in the loss of human lives in large numbers as a result of natural disasters.Combined with the inequitable transmission of social capital, poverty, poor governance, human rights violations, exclusion and environmental degradation, higher demands for natural resources and infrastructural services triggered deadly competition on diminishing resources, civil wars and fatal political unrest. According to the Global Report on Internal Displacement “disasters triggered by natural hazards caused twice as many new displacements in 2015 as conflict and violence”. (Cited by Glasser R., 2015). Towards setting an integrated urban data-base planning system model in Sudan, this research aims to develop a National displacement mitigation policy and urban capacity development programmes for internally displaced population (IDPs). By networking with local governments, emergency aid agencies and key stakeholders at grassroots levels, this project will empower the IDPs community-led decentralized urban planning schemes. Highlights on conflict-sensitive economics, employment, human rights sensitivity, geographical and social scope of the impact from conflict and fragility will be applied as crosscutting issues, to develop a comprehensive strategy for disaster risk management including urban administration of building construction codes, and land-use spatial planning policies. A balanced multi-dimensional urban management vision to be deliberated, and transferred to surrounding affected Arab World countries as Syria, Iraq and Yemen, reflecting the positive contribution of IDPs led networks to the city resilience plan for DRR.

Nutrition and dietetic services in the context to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the need of diasporic engagement
  Author: Nahlaa A Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Aim: (1) Evaluate the quality of nutrition and dietetics services delivered in the context chronic kidney disease to (CKD) patients in Jeddah City. (2) Assess the involvement of Saudi emigrant dietitian in renal setting. Methods:  Descriptive, cross-sectional study used structured questionnaires for CKD units’ administrators and emigrant Saudi dietitian alumni. Results: About (67%) of nutrition service departments’ supervisors in the recruited hospitals/units reported to employ 1-2 dietitians, and (66%) (n= 8) of the clinical dietitian are not accredited by Saudi Commission for Health Specialists (SCFHS). All participated Dietitians in the study reported implementation of different nutrition education methods for their CKD patients. This was applied to CKD patients with stages 1-5. However, (41.2%) reported that they are providing nutrition education to patients with pre-end stage renal disease. None of the emigrant Saudi dietitians (n=38) were involved with renal-related services. Conclusion: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered as one of the main health problem globally and nationally. The important of dietitian and dietetic services provided with CKD is well acknowledged in management of the disease. Nutrition services must be aware of all information of dietitians working in the facility in order to have beneficial results. Practical implications: Further studies are needed in different areas to evaluate the dietetic services in the context of CKD and diaspora of Saudi dietitians and neighbor should be engaged in order to unify the services and ensure the importance of dietetics in renal settings. Originality/value: This is the first in-depth study evaluate nutrition and dietetics services delivered to Chronic Kidney Diseases patients in renal units in Jeddah city and the first data about the Saudi emergent dietitians practice areas. Keywords: Chronic; Kidney; Disease; (CKD); Dietetic; Services; Diaspora; Saudi

Reflections on six years of knowledge transfer to Sudan – SMA UK&I experience

Author: Babikir Ismail, Ashford & St Pete’s NHS Foundation Trust, UK

Sudanese Medical Association in UK & Ireland was established in London in 2010. Aims are to transfer health knowledge and knowledge on medical education via a multidisciplinary team approach in collaboration with Sudanese medical and health establishment. Experience is based on training of post-graduate doctors and in-service allied health professionals by wide audience conferences and small group workshops. The paper will focus on difficulties and facilitating factors in knowledge transfer. Approach: We will review our six previous joint international conferences for: suitability of topic, attendance, scientific value, logistics and evaluation of the events by participants. Findings: huge interest of postgraduate students for learning, tendency to have more theoretical knowledge than practical knowledge, difficulty of electronic  communication  with our partners, influence of politics on medical field. Limitation: feedback by trainees and trainers need to be completed and better documented, electronic documentation of the events has some limitations, follow up of recommendations.

Review of the contribution and role of the manufacturing sector in the Sudanese economy

Author: Adil Ahmed Dafa’Alla, Airbus Operations Ltd, UK

Purpose: To investigate the contribution of the Sudanese manufacturing sector to the Sudanese economy and assess its role as a driver for achieving sustainable development in the Sudan.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper reviews and analyses the contribution of the manufacturing sector to the Sudanese economy based on the comprehensive industrial survey carried out with the assistance of UNIDO and UNDP in 2001. It then goes on to assess the role that this sector can play in improving its contribution to the Sudanese and regional economy and achieving sustainable development. Evidence from global industrial views, international economic reports and experience of other countries in similar situation as the Sudan was used to support arguments.

Findings: The Sudanese economy is agriculturally-based. A heavy injection of industrialisation of the economy is essential in order to improve the trade balance and help the country out of the poverty zone. The paper argues that building a competitive manufacturing industry as an important element of sustainable development plan for the Sudan is a shared responsibility of good governance, quality education and well-guided investment.

Originality/Value: The paper gives critical assessment of the role of the manufacturing sector in driving the Sudanese economy, which is seriously lacking in the literature. Additionally, the paper introduces building a competitive manufacturing industry in the Sudan as an important ingredient to boost the industrial sector as a whole, hence, improve the economy, fight poverty and move a step towards achieving sustainable development.

Keywords: Sudan; Industry, manufacturing, education; national development plan; sustainable development.

Open innovation in practice – Google versus Microsoft

Authors: Siham El-Kafafi, ICL Education Group, New Zealand Jing Chai, Greenspot Ltd., New Zealand Purpose: This research aims to critically assess two open innovation strategies including the inbound open innovation/inside-out innovation as well as the outbound open innovation/outside-in innovation and their application in two world renowned organisations. Design/Approach: The research will firstly discuss the application of the inside-out innovation strategy at Google, which provides the largest search engine in the world. This will be followed by the discussion of the application of the outside-in innovation strategy of Microsoft as one of the most influential personal computer software corporations in the world. Finally, the results of a comparison and evaluation of both Google and Microsoft’s application and adoption of the open innovation models and strategies will be provided. Findings: The following are some the findings resulting from analyzing Google’s inside-out innovation strategy versus Microsoft’s outside-in innovation strategy.

  • Successful open innovation strategies not only refers to developing new product, but also includes strong marketing competences to commercialise the products.
  • Google and Microsoft have strong resources, experiences and capabilities to market new products to potential customers and effectively communicate with the potential customers about the value created by the products.
  • Google and Microsoft adopt both inside-out and outside-in strategies and put great efforts to minimise disadvantages of such strategies.
Originality/Value: This research highlights the challenges and success factors confronted by two of the world’s most renowned organizations when applying the open innovation models in which other organizations could benefit from especially when planning on collaboration with external innovators. Research Limitations: This research reports on findings of two case studies which cannot be generalized on all types or sizes of organizations. Keywords: inbound open innovation, outbound open innovation, innovation strategies in Google and Microsoft.
The economic impact of migration on the welfare of ethiopian households

Author: Yousra Abdelmoneim, University of Sussex, UK 

Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the impact of migration on household welfare, in particular the consumption expenditure in Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data on 1,200 rural households from four different regions in 2014. A Heckman selection model is used to test and control for selection bias and to estimate the counterfactual consumption expenditure of households with migrants, had the migrant stayed at home. The paper then goes on to compare the counterfactual consumption expenditure with the observed one, and estimates the impact of migration on consumption expenditure. The results show that migration has a positive impact on the average rural household per capita consumption expenditure. However, those who experience the most benefit from migration are the households higher up the consumption expenditure distribution rather than the households lower down the consumption expenditure distribution.

The integration of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into a medical curriculum, an implementation model

Author: Abdelmoniem S. Elmardi, Al-Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract: This paper reports the experience of the author in integrating MOOCs as part of the online component of the implemented medical school’s curriculum. The author used a model that he developed through his life experience in integrating e-learning in a medical school’s curriculum. The paper describes the approach used to search for, identify & select the MOOCs that are appropriate for integration into the curriculum. The paper also describes the preparations and measures applied to ensure stakeholders’ engagement in the process in a way that guarantees buy-in and commitment to use the virtual learning environment. The effect of the planned and structured gradual integration of MOOCs into the curriculum is also reported.

Keywords: e-learning, virtual learning environment, MOOCs, medical education, educational technology

Economic value of agricultural water in Sudan

Authors: Eltigani E. B. Abdelgalil and Mohamed E. Gali,University of Gezira, Sudan

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine the value of water used in agriculture -the biggest consumptive sector- in Sudan.

Methodology: CROPWAT model was used to determine the volume of water supplied for irrigation. Net revenue was calculated to determine the output from agriculture.

Findings: The main results show that the net values of water ranging between $0.005/m3 and $ 0.001/m3 depending on irrigation system.

Practical implications: These findings will help into setting real value and cost of water in agriculture as the major consumptive sector and hence will help policy makers in developing decisions on agricultural water.

Social value: Valuation of water is one way of making users more aware of its value.

Originality value: This paper is first to figure out the value of agricultural water in the country.

Keywords: value, water, agriculture, irrigation systems, Sudan.

Human trafficking in Eastern Sudan and its impact on Europe

Author: Suliman Salih Dirar, African Global Media and Community Development, UK

Abstract: The Horn of Africa is witnessing a catastrophe from war, economic crises and disorder. This is reflected in massive migration to Eastern Sudan, and made Sudan the fourth largest exporter of refugees in the world where Human Trafficking flourished linked with smuggling drugs and weapons. Refugees in Eastern Sudan have put pressure in its meagre resources in addition to diseases and environment pollution. Europe and the international community is concerned about refugees in Eastern Sudan, as it is a transit stage on their way to Europe, and trying to stop them from reaching Europe or die in the sea. People should solve the causes in the grass roots by democracy and economical reforms, in addition of lifting ban of legal migration to Europe.

Keywords: Eastern Sudan, Human Trafficking, refugees, migration, Europe, Sudan, democracy, reforms.

North East arid zone development programme: diaspora partnership opportunity in research and development in the Sahel of Nigeria

Author: Njidda M. Gadzama, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show case and share, at international level, the successes in the collaboration between the North-East Arid Zone Development Programme (NEAZDP) and Center for Arid Zone Studies (CAZS), University of Maiduguri in research and development inputs.  This NEAZDP (Programme) was designed for improving rural sustainable livelihoods, thereby reducing poverty and soil degradation in Yobe and Borno States of Nigeria; with effects of climate change on rural communities.

Design/methodology/approach: NEAZDP is a well-planned socio-agricultural livelihood project with support of   base line scientific data provided by the multi-disciplinary CAZS. Programme management and Technical assistance services were provided by the Denish group of consultants (Danagro Adviser A/C and Hannemann A/S) in partnership with a Nigerian company- Diyam Consultants for the period of (1987-1995). Environmental impact assessment, community reconnaissance and needs assessments were all carried out as initial part of pre-project activities, thereby making the communities more aware and educated on the accruable benefits of the Projects for sustainable environment and livelihoods.

Findings:  Yobe and Borno States are the most desertification affected States in Nigeria. In fact they are part of the frontline desert threatened States of the country; constituting more than 40 % of the total land mass of Nigeria. This strategic intervention has empowered the rural communities, improved livelihoods, and attenuated some of the detrimental social, economic and environmental impacts in the two States. The Project has strengthened the resilience of the people, participating in arid agriculture, aquaculture, Great Green Wall development, trading, dry season gardening and many other developments.  Because of its success, especially Yobe State has sustained to date, NEAZAP concept of sustainable rural development.

Originality and Value: The successful implementation of the Project is a case study of collaborative efforts of NEAZDP and CAZS, both financially supported by the Delegation of European Communities which achieved the desired results for the benefit of the rural communities, environmentally friendly activities and sound foundation for sustainable development.The success of the Project is discussed with recommendation for active future participation and collaboration of Diasporas in similar research and developments in Nigeria.

Keywords: Partnership in research and development; sustainable livelihood; bilateral financial support; community participation; environmental impact assessment; Great Green Wall; sustainable rural development.

The development of Sudanese future leadership: the investment in human capabilities

Author: Ahmed Bannaga, Physical Environmental Centre of Khartoum, Sudan

Purpose: The main goal of this paper is to suggest the role of the Sudanese diaspora in creating better path for Sudan’s future leadership through postgraduates research and studies programme in world known international institutions. The goal is to qualify around 2000 elite college graduates in 10 years to be the cornerstone of a leadership that qualify and train 200,000 college graduates.

Methodology: By applying the 10 years experience of the Physical Environmental Centre – PECK the largest local provider of scholarship that offered over 75 opportunities for postgraduates researches. The paper will also investigates the experience and literature produces by countries invested in human capabilities such as Malaysia, Turkey and UAE will be considered.

Findings: The paper will suggest a programme for elite graduates from Sudan’s universities to join international institutions mainly in UK by the support of the Sudanese diaspora. It will explain the success rates of our programme as 75 received master degree scholarships, 35% of them received PhD scholarships while 42% achieved Distinction in their courses making the overall success rate reaches 97.2%. The suggested programme shall highlight the significant role of diaspora in supervision, advice and financial support.

Practical Implication: The paper will outline the success achieved by PECK in the previous year and how it can be posted to reach its goal. It will practically address all issues related to Sudanese graduates capabilities and how diaspora can offer their support in practical application.

Keywords:  Postgraduate Research, Diaspora, Sudan, Scholarship, Capacity Building.

Research status and and profile of the second Didactic Dietetics Programme in Saudi Arabia: a response from a Diaspora of graduates

Author: Elham Aljaaly, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 

Purpose: To measure the quality and quantity of practice used in relation to research for students and faculty members of the second established Saudi Dietetic programme at King Abdualziz University (KAU).

Design/methods: The quantity, type and approaches used in conducting research in the KAU dietetic programme was measured and identified considering major components in defining criteria of quantity, quality, funds, research awards, data collection and reports concerning faculty and students’ participation in research. A feedback surveys based on alumni students was also concerned.

Findings: The applied nutrition research based on final year research projects was mainly related to clinical dietetics and practice (62%). Other research was related to public health, management or other taught sciences. The results of the conducted alumni feedback survey (responds = 33 out 188 graduates) showed that only 65.6% of students had adequate budget and facilities provided for their research projects. About 29 % (n= 4 out of 29) of the graduates carried out joint research projects and not all contributions was appropriately acknowledged. Only 19% of students had their research published in peer-reviewed journals, and 53% thought that their study and research training period of programme prepared them well to undertake research. Few respondents (32%) were currently involved in research that is related to their postgraduate studies and 53% of graduates are continuing their education in countries like Canada, USA and United Kingdom and the rest in Saudi Arabia. This diversity in postgraduate education in the dietetics will enrich the research in the department.

Practical implications: the study will help dietetic programme administrative to develop and Implement a strategic plan for research activities within international standards.

Originality/value:  The first study to measure the quantity and quality in research in a Saudi dietetic programme using alumni.

Keywords: Research; Diaspora; Graduates; Alumini; Saudi; Clinical Nutrition/Dietetics; KPIs; Higher Education.

The role of diaspora’s multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) in sustainable rural development

Author: Abdelrahman Omer, Royal Victoria Infirmary, UK

Purpose: This paper highlights the need for diaspora’s MDTs in implementing a sustainable development. There are three specific domains involved; raising the income of household members, enabling access to affordable education and providing essential health care services.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper will assess the current situation of Sudan regarding sustainable development goals (SDGs), later analysing previous contributions of diaspora to achieve these goals. Using this information as evidence, we will propose a framework in order to reach Sudan’s SDGs.

Findings: There is great disparity between SDGs and the current situation in Sudan. MDTs are essential in achieving comprehensive development; Diaspora being a corner stone in this process in collaboration with local communities and national institutions. Collaboration between these parties proves to be cost effective, more efficient and sustainable.

Originality/Value: This paper promotes a more holistic and comprehensive approach to tackle the current situation regarding rural developments, along with combining business and charitable models to ensure sustainability.

Keywords: Sudan; projects; sustainable development goals; social entrepreneurs.

Assessment of the use of treated waste water from oil refinery in irrigation, Khartoum-Sudan


Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Sudan Sufyan A. M.Ossman, Ministry of Oil, Sudan Ahmed Aldoma, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan Hind Abdallah Suliman, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Problem: Sudan is currently facing a serious problem of disposal and reuse of waste water from different sources. In oil industry refinery waste water was estimated as 20 million m3/annum where evaporation ponds were established in order to treat the waste water for further uses mainly irrigating trees as shelter belts and wind breaks around the refinery area.

Objective: The ongoing trees planting efforts using the refinery waste water for irrigation seemed to be based on inadequate information regarding the use of the most suitable tree species in terms of both site adaptability and tolerance to the waste water quality. Besides the hazardous effect of waste water on the environment mainly on soils characteristics.

Methodology: Six tree species ( Acacia tortili; Eucalyptus camadulensis, Azadrichta indica, Grewia tennax,Eugenia jambolana, and Conocarpus erectus) were selected and used in Completely Randomized Block Design in field trial using refinery waste water for irrigation. Data was collected concerning plant growth parameters and performance thorough out the experimentation period for 15 months. Soil samples were analyzed after application of waste water for quality assessment.

Findings: Results of the experiment revealed the significant difference between all six tree species in their tolerance to waste water with respect to leave number, number of branches, plant height and stem diameter. The most suitable tree species found were Conocarpus erecta and Acacia tortilis while the least tolerant tree was Grewia tenax. Soil analysis results revealed a remarkable change in some soil characteristics after waste water application mainly, electric conductivity, pH and minerals concentrations.

Value: Refinery waste water could be used for irrigation purposes only under certain circumstances. Proper treatment measures should be introduced before waste water use. Soil quality was also important and certain precautions should be implemented before irrigation.

The role of Sudanese expatriates’ professional associations across countries: A success story!!

Authors: Anoud R. Omer, Community Medicine Specialist and Abdelrahman Khalifa, Community Medicine Registrar, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: With the increasing out-immigration rates of Sudanese professional workers, expatriates in different countries are establishing professional associations and participating largely in the capacity building and social networking. This study aims to explore their work and its effects on both; country of origin and host country.

Design: An in-depth case study, exploring activities delivered by two Sudanese professional associations in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the perceptions of its members about these activities.

Findings: These two associations were found to be very active in the capacity building arena in Jeddah, not only for its Sudanese members, but for other nationalities as well. Their other services including: social networking events, coaching and recruitment assistance for newly comers, not to mention acting as a liaison with local partners in the host country were also identified as a “Great plus” by the associations’ members.  

Originality/Value: Professional associations are known to play significant roles in bridging skill gaps and building the capacity of professionals. Those who are working across countries possess great potentials and can contribute substantially in the international scientific collaboration if supported and directed towards countries’ needs.

Keywords: Expatriates; capacity building; professional associations

Sudanese microfinance providers mobile banking adoption intention determinants

Authors: Anwar Ammar and Elsadig Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to investigate the major factors affecting the adoption of mobile banking by Sudanese microfinance providers. In this note a large number of populations in Sudan do not have access to formal financial services. Recent innovation in providing financial services in a convenient and efficient way is the use of mobile banking (M-banking) technology in microfinance.

Design/methodology/approach: This study aims to identify the major factors determining the adoption of M-banking in the Sudanese microfinance sector. To explain the key drivers and barriers to M-banking adoption in Sudan microfinance sector, hypotheses were developed guided by Technology-organization-Environment (TOE) models.

Findings: In terms of method used the study contributes to the available literature by modifying and combining the models used via considering supply (microfinance providers) and empirically examined it to show the wide picture of M-banking intention adoption by Sudanese microfinance providers. Besides, qualitative approach through interviewing the experts concerning M-banking adaption from different related sectors that must be involved in adopting M-banking in Sudanese microfinance has been implemented.

Originality: By doing so the study has filled the gaps in past studies in this research area. In this note, using PLS as new phenomena tool to analyse the primary data of quantitative approach for microfinance providers’ data has added new empirical value to the literature in this research area.

Keywords: Sudanese microfinance providers; mobile banking; adoption intention

Clients confidentiality: threat to anti-corruption strategies in developing countries

Author: Maruf Adeniyi Nasir, International Islamic University, Malaysia

The consequential effects of illicit capital flow on developing countries economy are enormous. Anti-money laundering (AML) issue therefore requires more attention. Regrettably, however, the illicit financial flows (IFFs) are on the increase unabated.  Juxtaposing the client’s confidentiality with the public interest by legal practice that values confidentialities is crucial in combating corruption. Presently, statutes that regulate confidentialities of clients are contradictory in Nigeria like most of other developing countries. While the Evidence Act, classified client information as privileged and not subject to disclosure, AML Act places absolute obligation on counsel to record and report financial transaction of client. Consequently, the conflict that arises becomes serious problem.

Purpose: This paper seeks to resolve the lingering consequential problems of the contradictions using the relevant cannon of interpretations as well as jurisprudential postulations with a view to reaching valuable conclusion and making suggestions capable of resolving the debacle.

Methodology: Doctrinal research methodology was adopted where the existing substantive and procedural law on money laundering in Nigeria was examined to identify the area of conflict and judicial interpretations of these laws

Research limitations: The research is limited to the existing legislations and regulations in Nigeria along with FAFT recommendations.

Findings: Legal practitioners are germane for the effective prosecution of corrupts members of the society and unless the money laundering legislations is interpreted to constitute an exception to other laws guiding the confidentiality of client’s relation with counsel corruption will remain unresolvable problem.

Originality/value: This paper suggest means of conferring success to anti-corruption strategies to achieve the desire result through exploration of judicial activism using mischief rules of interpretation.

Keywords: Legal practitioners; clients; confidentialities; AML; Nigeria

Enablers and inhibitors of effective industrial policy for the Sudan


Adil A. Dafa’Alla, Airbus UK, UK Elmouiz S. Hussein, Airbus UK, UK Marwan A. A. Adam, Sudanese Knowledge Society, Sudan

Purpose: To analyse the performance of the industrial sector in the Sudan and assess the enablers and inhibitors to its full participation into the Sudanese economy.


  • Review and analyse of bench-mark industrial policies around the globe with the objective of extracting the main enablers and inhibitors.
  • Review and analyse the contribution of industrial sector to the Sudanese economy applying lessons learnt from above.
  • Assess the performance of the industrial sector in the Sudan and make appropriate recommendations to improve it.

Findings: Lack of effective industrial policy is very clear and reflected in general weakness of the Sudanese economy. Recommendations based on the analysis of enablers and inhibitors to the industrial sector were made in order to improve the contribution of the sector to achieving sustainable development and improving the Sudanese economy

Originality/Value: The industrial policy in the Sudan hasn’t been reviewed recently. The impact of this in the industrial sector and the Sudanese economy in general is visible. The paper provides critical analysis of enablers and inhibitors of effective industrial policy.

Keywords: Sudan; industrial system; industrial policy; national development plan; enablers and inhibitors

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