The following papers have been submitted for consideration:

Mental health well-being within UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (Lade Olugbemi)
Lade Olugbemi, CEO, Nous Organisation, UK
This paper calls for an improvement in the mental health care in African countries. According to a recent report, only 0.5% is allotted to mental health, in a continent where 75% of the people who suffer from mental health are unable to understand or access the few services that are available. Part of the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 is to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all. There has been significant progress made in addressing physical diseases such as malaria, maternal death and HIV, however mental health has not received so much attention due to the impending stigma associated with mental health and the lack of information about the prognosis. Although high rates of poverty and unemployment can trigger off depression and anxiety, and substance abuse is a contributory factor to violence, there is growing evidence that indicates that a large proportion of the global health burden is due to mental disorders and this projection is projected to rise in many African countries. Women and children who have been affected by conflict, climate change and other environmental factors have been known to experience Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression and a host of mental health disorders. Mental health is a precursor to unrest and a few other challenges affecting Africa, and it would require a collaborative effort of both the public and private sector to address this surge, for there is no health without mental health.
Keywords: mental health, disability, mental health initiative.
Obesity related behaviours in adolescent friendship networks: exploring the moderating role of friendship network properties(Noor Alsayed, Tillal Eldabi and Habin Lee)
Noor Alsayed, Tillal Eldabi & Habin Lee, Brun University, UK
Abstract: Social networks including friendship networks are critical in shaping adolescents’ health behaviours. Therefore, understanding the complex structure of friendship ties is vital for understanding the role of friendship influences on the different obesity related behaviours including unhealthy diet, low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary activities. There are strong associations between peers’ and friends’ health behaviours which suggest that health behaviours of an individual’s peers and friends plays an important role in shaping their own health behaviours. Examining friendship network position, structure, and how they interact with individual behaviour provides valuable insight for how to modify these behaviours. There is extensive research investigating associations between the individual’s obesity related behaviours and his/her friends’ obesity related behaviours. However there is a lack of evidence regarding the moderating effect of friendship network characteristics on associations between the individual’s obesity related behaviours and his/her friends’ obesity related behaviours. As a result it is not clear whether or not the similarity in obesity related behaviours among friends is amplified or conditioned by the characteristics of their friendship networks. The purpose of this paper is to explore associations between the individual’s obesity related behaviours and his/her friends’ obesity related behaviours and to identify which network properties can act as moderators on associations between the individual’s obesity related behaviours and his/her friends’ obesity related behaviours including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour after reviewing the existing literature.
Keywords: Social Networks, Friendship Networks, Obesity, Diet, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour.
Migration and the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda (Olivia Joseph-Aluko)
Olivia Joseph-Aluko, Reinvent African Diaspora Network (RADET), UK
This paper explores how migration can be a driving force for tackling inequalities within the Sustainable Development Goals. Migrants are vulnerable people and are easily subject to poverty, inequality, exploitation and human trafficking.  Economic migration  and forced displacement have raised new concerns that can be best addressed by a multidimensional public and private sector response. The Migrant Mediterranean  crisis in which it was reported that over 5,000 men, women and children have drowned or rather disappeared as of April 2017  clearly highlights the failures of the  International community. The private sector such as human rights groups, charities and  other none governmental organisations  who sometimes have been discouraged by political leaders in Europe have often provided support for new migrants and refugees. With little or no assistance from the government, they provide different initiatives to assist economic migrants and refugees  in their resettlement into their new country through the provision of accommodation, education and employment. Migration is a complex growing issue, and it would require the joint effort of both the public and private sector to  bring about practical solutions.
Keywords: International migration, brain drain, returned migration, refugees, displacement.
Towards modelling diaspora contribution as agents for development (Adil Ahmed Dafa’Alla and Elmouiz Siddeg Hussain)
Dr. Adil Ahmed Dafa’Alla and Mr. Elmouiz Siddeg Hussain, Airbus UK 
Purpose: To conceptually model the economic contribution of the Diaspora as a public private partnership to promote business, investment and industry both in their host and countries of origin.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research methodology is used in order to understand the huge potential that the Diaspora may have in benefiting the economic growth in their host countries, effecting economic and industrial development in their countries of origin as well as boosting their own personal investment portfolio through utilising the expertise they gained and links they developed. This can conceptually be built as a triangular model for public private partnership.
Findings: The diaspora population is rising steadily. Over 200 million people live outside their country of birth. Their host countries benefit from their skills and innovation. However, although the role played by diaspora in the development, poverty reduction and reconstruction of their countries of origin is significant, this role is not fully recognised neither by their host countries nor their countries of origin. There is a powerful triangle of Diaspora, host and countries of origin that can potentially be used to promote business, investment and industry both in the host and countries of origin. This presents the Diaspora, in partnership with their host and countries of origin, as a potential tool for achieving sustainable development and fighting poverty. This is a step towards achieving the UN sustainable development goals for 2030.
Originality/Value: The role of diaspora in “FIRE-FIGHTING” economic crises in their countries of origin is well covered in the literature. However, very little was highlighted about the benefits they bring to their host countries, both in economic terms and source of innovation. This paper aims at widening the scope to look at the Diaspora as global agents for sustainable development, and model their contribution as public private partnership between the diaspora, host and countries of origin.
Keywords: Diaspora, partnership, sustainable Development, industry, business, investment, model.
Use of Talbinah (BARLEY BROTH) as a pattern of depression management among Saudi females medical students (Nahlaa A. Khalifa)
Dr. Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: Depression prevalence and antidepressant medications usage have been increased recently. This paper aims to study the effect of Talbinah (barley broth) as a prophetic evidence-based complementary medicine on depression and to emphasize the importance of combining the private and public medicare in managing depression.
Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of Talbinah consumption on depression on a sample of (42) female medical students. Self-administered questionnaires were used. The intervention group was given one serving of Talbinah on a daily basis in addition to their habitual diet.
Findings: The depression score was decrease in the intervention group (score=8.69±6.53) compared to the nonintervention group (13.3±8.1), although the difference is insignificant.
Research Limitations: Advanced diagnostic approaches are needed to detect depression. Participants must be in a closed setting to control their food intake.
Practical Implications: Public private medicare collaboration and entering diet in managing depression to reduce the use, cost and the antidepressant medication side effects.
Originality/Value: Significant importance in broadening the scope of giving more attention for managing mental diseases which come in parallel with sustainable development goals (3): Ensuring healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.
Keywords: Talbinah, Depression, Barley, Complementary, Evidence-Based, Mental.
Shoot regeneration from nodal segment of Acacia Senegal in Borno State of Nigeria (Njidda M. Gadzama, Jummai T. Kaldapa, Martha Tarfa & Bukar H. Kabura)
Prof. Njidda M. Gadzama, Jummai T. Kaldapa, Martha Tarfa & Bukar H. Kabura, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Purpose: Acacia senegal,
is a valuable leguminous tree species of the sudano- sahelian region sought after for its economic and ecological importance. Developing in vitro propagation protocol for this tree in Borno State of Nigeria will provide a sustainable means of re-foresting and improving the nutrient of the degraded soil of the Sahel environment of Nigeria.
Design Methodology Approach:
Nodal segments derived from 6-months-old seedlings growing on the experimental farm of the Biotechnology Centre, University of Maiduguri, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.025–1.5 mg/l of 6-benzylminopurinee (6-BAP) alone and in combination with 0.02 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 – 1.6mg/l of kinetin (Kn) alone or in combination with 0.2 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA).
Findings/Results: The maximum number of shoots per explant (2.31 ± 1.24) and longest shoots (2.59 ± 1.38 cm) were obtained from MS medium supplemented with1.0mg/l and 1.5mg/l BAP respectively while 1.16 ± 0.71 shoots with maximum 2.34 ± 1.35 cm length were found in medium containing 1.2mg/l Kinetin after 4 weeks of culture.. Inclusion of NAA (0.02 mg L-1) with 6-BAP at the various concentrations in the culture medium was not effective in enhancing shoot proliferation. However, obtained results indicate that both shoot number (1.70 ± 0.0.95 ) and length (2.33 ± 0.92 cm ) were enhanced by adding 0.2mg/l NAA to 0.4mg/Kn.
Originality and value: This work would be the first attempt to propagate Acacia senegal by in- vitro method in Borno State of Nigeria with the view of generating reproducible protocol for future mass propagation of the tree crop in the State.
Keywords: Acacia senegal; in-vitro micro-propagation; gum arabic; induction; Murashige and Skoog (MS); 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4-D); Kinetin (KN); 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BAP); α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA).
Combating Desertification in Sudan: Experiences and lessons learned (Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad)
Dr. Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan
Problem statement: Sudan is the largest (2.5 million km2) and most seriously affected country by desertification in Africa. The arid and semi-arid lands cover an area of 1.78 million km2, which represents about 72% of the total area of the country (1). Sudan has collaborated with and contributed to the international efforts to combat desertification. It is one of the first countries that signed the UNCCD and assigned the NDDCU for the coordination of programs to mitigate the effects of drought and to combat desertification as a focal point. Since the thirties of the last century, programs to combat desertification and its component projects and interventions were being launched in the Sudan through technical and financial assistance (local and international) to improve land resources, production systems, and protection of the environment (2). Sudan, like other African countries, needs a plant cover, where an earlier study for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicated that Sudan lost between 250000 to 1,250,000 Hectares of the total area of its forests since 2005, which was a main reason in expansion of the desertification phenomenon(2). Therefore unless serious and immediate action is pursued the gap between the sustainability of resources and the degree of exploitation will further widen (2).
Objectives: To review the efforts taken by Sudan in combating desertification from governmental and private sectors and to assess the reasons for the failure of the past efforts to combat desertification.
Methodology: Previous acts and agreements from national and international sources have been collected. The hazards of desertification and their impacts on economic and social lives have been evaluated.
Findings: Many conclusions and lessons were emerging from the previous experiences of governmental, NGOs, civil society and private sectors in implementing desertification programs in Sudan. The analytical review of Sudan desertification policies showed the lack of the intersectoral approach that integrates forestry activities and land use into the social, economic and developmental process of the country. They also lacked linkages to other sectors that use and actually compete for the available natural resources.
Values: Therefore it was recommended that, capacity building, public awareness, integration of NGOs, governmental sectors including research institutions, ministries and international organizations is urgently needed.
(1) Republic of Sudan. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; NDDCU; SNAP; A frame work of combating desertification in Sudan in the context of the UN Convention to combat desertification, Khartoum,-Sudan, March 2006.
(2) African News. www.Xinhuanet.com (2016).