The following abstracts/papers have been submitted for presentation and inclusion in the conferences proceedings. There is a limit of two paper submissions per presenting author. Authors who are uncertain of the appropriate track for their papers should consult the conference coordinator, Ms Janet Snow (janet.snow@wasd.org.uk). Please submit your paper(s) directly to the Track Chairs with a copy to the conferences coordinator, Ms Janet Snow (janet.snow@wasd.org.uk).

Development of undergraduate medical education and research in Sudan universities: Learning from the UK experience (Dr. Waiel Bashari, University of Cambridge, UK)
Dr. Waiel Bashari, University of Cambridge, UK
Abstract: Medical schools in Sudan have long sailed in the wrong path with respect to achieving modern undergraduate curricula and conducting world-class research. The problem (which is well recognised to be multifactorial) have undoubtedly contributed to the deterioration of Sudan’s healthcare and the failure of the country to produce experienced Sudanese doctors who are well-equipped to tackle the challenges that lie ahead. We have recently conducted medical and educational work in Sudan that has successfully paved the path to generate excellent collaboration links between the medical schools in the University of Khartoum and the University of Cambridge. We would like to propose to the panel different ways that would help generate strong links between Universities in Sudan and the UK, with the focus in undergraduate medical education and research.
Benchmarking Sudan’s ICT ecosystem- Towards developing an ICT vision (Dr. Hassan Hamdoun, British Telecom, UK)
Dr. Hassan Hamdoun, British Telecom, UK
Purpose: To analyse the ICT services performance against the telecommunications and ICT purpose and mandate, taking into account stakeholders’ role in the ecosystem. To highlight the role of research and practitioners into developing an ICT ecosystem that is adaptable and flexible to meet the increasing demand from citizens for ICT applications usage while remaining competitive in a world eaten by software.
Design/methodology/approach: A benchmarking analysis on the ICT services performance in Sudan between 2005-2015 is presented. It uses qualitative and quantitative analysis to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of ICT services and the underlying ecosystem. A set of 12 commercial, 10 financial, 7 technological and 6 traffic utilization Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were selected as data collection measures. Data were collected from various public sources, including the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the World Bank. Similarity grouping was performed using demography, development and socio-economic data in order to find the set of countries with similar underlying characteristics and environment to Sudan. A machine learning K-means clustering algorithm was implemented for this purpose. A vision for ICT in Sudan is proposed following a process-based approach to ICT as enabler as well as value-based instrument for improving various aspect of societal communications, governance and transparency between government institutions, citizens and 3rd sector organizations and value-based economic development. The various phases of establishing the ICT vision are presented highlighting dependences between phases and the core values adopted when developing the Sudan’s ICT vision and ICT policies.
Findings: Analysis results describe Sudan’s position among the World countries belong to its cluster. Benchmark graphs are presented highlighting how the ICT sector performs in economic, social and technical competencies compared to countries similar to Sudan in geographic, political and cultural traits. Key recommendations are presented and mapped to ICT vision for Sudan.
Summary: Results are cross-mapped to the proposed ICT vision in and key points/comments are discussed including: role of ICT energy in aiding various phases of ICT development in Sudan, from investment, human development to value-based economic development especially in mobile networks. Sub-categories are presented covering infrastructure development, improving education, KPIs for reporting and performance, pricing, regulation and customer experience, and the policy regulator role. Author bring it all together in summary remarks highlighting the interdisciplinary aspects of developing an ICT vision quoting author’s research findings and learning from both research and technical practitioner roles and technical leadership of cutting-edge infrastructure projects in Europe.
Keywords: ICT vision; Sudan; ICT diffusion, access and penetration; Competitiveness Index, Human Development Index, Innovation; Mobile Digital Economy.

How can youth be able to build Sudan after the success of the revolution? (Nimiry Hussain Mejawer, BCFM Radio, UK)
Nimiry Hussain Mejawer, BCFM Radio, UK
I am going to talk about the role of youth in the near future in Sudan after success of the revolution. So It is necessary to know the minimum capacities, levels and needs of young people at all levels political, economic, social and cultural and enable them to participate in decision-making in order to promote and develop the Sudan.
Assessment stations on the path to education (Prof. El Tayeb Abusin, Education Advisor, UK)
Prof. El Tayeb Abusin, Education Advisor, UK
The caravan of education is the nation’s vehicle for the realization of the meanings of its identity that distinguishes such nation from its counterparts. One of the bases of the renaissance of education is to work towards placing the sponsorship of education at the forefront of the State’s concerns, in the form of unmatchable material support, in order to deepen the roots of the tree of ascending and climbing the ladder of the cultural giving. That material support flows in the direction of translating knowledge into channels of irrigation that would irrigate all walks of economic and political life, and everything that is related to people’s livelihood.
Education that accommodates its entire components: a teaching that is related to indoctrination; an education that intrigues the spirit of comparison to ensure student’s participation in the lesson; an upbringing being an honest translation that transforms a piece of information into an integral part of the behaviour within the framework of a proven curriculum, a lovable book, and a teacher who receives raining in an educational environment characterized by all features of qualification from the place to the human being: the place is the healthy vessel for all sorts of activity that converge in unison to seek the birth of a product: the expected dream of a nation entering the gates of cultivating the fruits of a legacy that never depletes; and the human being is the noun that fits the description.
The factors converge and overlap in complementary roles that support each other under the umbrella of a platform that embraces the identity with all of its elements. This is followed by the curriculum in its threefold: text, exercise and training, in order raise high the banner of upbringing the holders of the message of the future when the vision has become clear and the footsteps have been consolidated.
Working towards raising the value of the product by creating harmony between the information communicator, the communicated information, and the receiver of the information is a constructive element that shall be unhindered and crystal clear. The subject taught to the student shall embrace his age-group in order for him to accept it and absorb it. He shall feel as if he was a bee flying over colourful roses, turning to his right and to his left to see only what makes him feel the warmth of that embrace: a teacher who reads his behaviour and nurture it, an environment that whispers in his ear welcoming him, and school mates in harmony with each other where age-groups under the school roof are removed.
Extracurricular activity shall be re-established in order to perform its role shoulder to shoulder with the class activity to complement each other. Among the aspects of the extracurricular activity is the school library book that stands as a strong supporter for the curriculum, and which shall be prepared as a harvest of the thoughts of both the class teacher and the author, in order for the linguistic harvest to correspond with the library textbook, and the student’s age to reconcile with the idea of the book.
The establishment of a set of institutions to carry out teacher training and qualification, a second set of institutions to care for the school textbook, a third set for the restructuring of the different schooling stages, and a fourth set for the restoration of the language of instruction. In this context, the questions of the nature of examinations leading to university and other post-secondary levels shall be addressed.
The above were words that hovered around the structures of an educational institution that has been negatively affected by equations and modifications over time, the effects of which strain the minds that seek to reform, rationalize performance and raise the efficiency of giving.
Knowledge-based economy flagships and pillars development to enhance future development in Sudan’ perception (Prof. Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia)
Prof. Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Purpose: Knowledge based economy (K-based economy) flagships should be developed in order to develop Sudan’s knowledge economy foundations for future development by studying the experience of the countries that planned and developed their economies into knowledge economy such as countries in America, Europe and south East Asia.
Design/methodology/approach: It should be noted that developing human capital (skilled or knowledge workers) is perquisite of developing and implementing Information and Communications Technology (ICT) applications in Sudan’s economic sectors with the right human skills, ICT will facilitate the economic activities as technology in general and ICT in particular are facilitators that need the right human skills to function it. To develop a competitive edge in a knowledge-based economy, Sudan would need a highly skilled labor force. A highly skilled labor force is the fuel to the engine of growth in the K-based economy. They provide the “know-how” that goes into the production of innovative products to enable a company or a country to be competitive in the global market place. In addition, out-migration drains the limited talent pool. Many professional and technical personnel have migrated abroad and Sudanese students overseas are another source of potential out-migration.
Findings: The alternative is to bring in the requisite skilled labor from outside and conditions in the country should be liberalized for their recruitment. Sudan produced huge number of university graduates and postgraduates that should be trained to upgrade their skills to contribute to the development of Sudan’s knowledge economy foundations and activities. Improving the schools and universities in Sudan by developing good infrastructure and infostructure is of urgent need to make the Sudanese education institutions to play their significant role as the sources of human capital development that is considered to be one of the important pillars to develop knowledge economy in Sudan.
Originality: Another important challenge that Sudan would face in its effort to move to a K-based economy would be its ability to build an innovative capacity in the country to be able to develop innovative goods and services for the K-based economy. Knowledge economy pillars development such as (knowledge economy institutions, ICT, research and development (R&D), new business models, Small and Medium Enterprises, (SMEs), Cyber Laws and other knowledge economy pillars are extremely needed in order to develop K-based economy.
Keywords: Knowledge economy flagships and pillars, ICT, human capital, SMEs, ne business models, Sudan.
Economic contribution of Merowe Dam in Sudan: An analysis of communities’ perception (Al-Noor Abdullah, Plymouth University, UK)
Al-Noor Abdullah, Plymouth University, UK
Abstract: Concern on the economic impacts of Merowe Dam in Sudan and studies exploring local communities’ perception of this issue are nascent. The present paper provides an insight on the economic impacts of Merowe Dam as perceived by Merowian farmers and other stakeholders which are supported by material evidences, such as: electricity supply and its role in agriculture and other areas of the economy; and infrastructure for transportation and marketing of agricultural goods.. Three inter-related areas of impact have been analysed – electricity, agriculture and infrastructure in the region, using an array of indicators collected through questionnaires and interviews. The results show that local communities are well aware of both positive and adverse economic impacts of Merowe Dam although these are more focused on the visible impacts closely related to livelihood sources, such as ‘food production’, ‘water supply’ and ‘electricity cost’. Food production has increased including fishing despite some shortages in irrigation water supply especially in relocated communities. Electricity supply led to reduction in irrigation cost but domestically the cost of obtaining electricity has increased due to government policy. Local communities’ perceptions are weak for impacts not related to agriculture, such as infrastructure. Raising farmers’ awareness of the role of infrastructure in supporting agro-economic activities is urgently needed for sustainable economic development in the region. In doing so modern agriculture and its applications needs improvement in all fronts, however, there is a need to be a balance between addressing the livelihood needs of local communities and enhancing agribusiness in the region by policy-makers.
Building urban resilience in fragile settings: the context of climate change, conflict and displacement, Khartoum - Sudan (Nuha Eltinay, London South Bank University, UK and Arab Urban Development Institute, Saudi Arabia)
Nuha Eltinay, London South Bank University, UK and Arab Urban Development Institute, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Calls for integrating Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) approaches through the human security lens, are now raised globally more than ever, with the increasing losses of disasters and cascading impacts of climate change on environmental, political and economic state stability, weakening institutional governance and generating new patterns of protracted displacement. The United States Department of Defense reported that ‘Climate change can act as a threat multiplier for instability in some of the most volatile regions of the world’ (Climate Change and Conflict, Political Geography, August 2007, Vol.26 (6):627). Hosting four of the Worlds’ twelve countries (Sudan, Somalia, Syria and Yemen) with the highest overall risk of humanitarian crises and disasters, this phenomenon is most pronounced in the Arab Region, where the same four countries fall into the highest values of global vulnerability (INFORM risk index,2018). First established as a security issue by the United Nations Security Council in April 2007, the Africa-Arab Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Tunisia 2018, highlighted the need for developing comprehensive mechanisms for tackling climate change drivers, to reduce the regional level of exposure and vulnerability to natural hazards, tackling the Arab states fragility of ‘urban disasters’, ‘urban poverty’ and ‘urban violence’ (De Boer, 2015). These components will be reflected in the historical urban expansion of Khartoum city (Sudan), to increase the visibility and awareness of conflict sensitivity in building resilience for climate change, and its impact on Internally Displaced People’s (IDPs) vulnerabilities to achieve ‘durable solutions’. A systematic literature review for the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) Global overviews on Internal displacement for the period 2003-2018 is applied, to help understanding the national scale of protracted displacement, and try to paint a picture of existing IDPs status in Khartoum, in order to develop comprehensive approach for building resilience to disasters risk displacement in urban settings. Data gaps in monitoring protracted displacement and socio-economic determents of vulnerability are investigated, while exploring the tools and methodologies applied by humanitarian aid and international development actors to monitor the IDPs disaster displacements in urban settings. Taking into account the significance of disaggregated disaster data losses in achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction targets at the local level, a comparative analysis of Khartoum’s disaster resilience assessment is applied, against four of Sudan’s Central, Southern, Eastern and Western regions boarder states, located at the front line of violence conflict zones. Recommendations are framed to integrate the complexities of protracted displacement in international donors’ strategies of monitoring disaster data losses and city resilience action plans, with the implementation of DRR policies through climate change – human security perspective.
Keywords: Climate Change, Conflict, Disaster Risk Reduction, Displacement, Fragility, Resilience.
Human resources in Sudan: from personnel management to people management (Reem Faysal, British Petroleum, UK)
Reem Faysal, British Petroleum, UK
The aim of this paper is to look into the wider opportunities for developing the key asset for the economy – its people! With the current changes and developments in Sudan, the need is more than ever, calling for leadership assessment, women empowerment, talent development, and many other areas that require a strong Human Resources (HR) cadre to facilitate. It is evident that HR in Sudan is till in its simple state of Personnel Management, looking at contracts and absence management, whereas what is needed is the drive into people management. There is a huge gap between the capacity building and education offered in the labour market, versus what is required by the different organizations in the public and private sector. This has resulted in expatriation on both ends of the balance scale, with Sudanese moving to find work abroad, and expats coming to Sudan. This inadequate supply and demand balance has increased the rate of unemployment, hence the economic building of Sudan. The education system, as well as the Sudanese culture and mindset have contributed to this retardation. The lack of soft skill and leadership capability has been more visual in the last few months, all of which call for strong facilitation and management of HR practices, and practitioners, who play a huge role in the management of change, engagement and talent spotting. The current revolution has brought into focus amazing talent that is thriving for opportunities to grab. There are many set backs that can pull us back, but we will focus on opportunities that can drive us forward in building a vision that is enabled through positive culture and strong values, which will allow Human Resources Management to play its key role in capacity building, through identification, assessment, development and deployment of youth and the Sudanese workforce. This in turn will link into Sudan’s people strategy, hence enriching economic growth.
Debt restructuring and financial growth in Sudan (Dr. Iman Sharif, Bangor University, UK)
Dr. Iman Sharif, Bangor University, UK
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the impact of debt structure on financial growth and economic performance in Sudan. The study is motivated by the recent regime change in Sudan’s autocratic 30 years of autocratic rule have come to an end. Sudan has a long history of default debt, fresh interest has sparked among traders and holders of the country’s long-defaulted debt and policy makers to redress the country debt that has been frozen for the best part of four decades. Sudan’s debt is part of a highly opaque market of legacy debts of countries isolated from the rest of the international community, such as pre-Castro Cuban debt or loans issued by North Korea. Apart from defaulting on payments from the early 1980s onwards, Sudan was also subject to U.S. sanctions linked to the conflict in Darfur for nearly two decades until 2017. External debt plays a crucial and a critical role in low income and low domestic savings economies including Sudan. However, if not well utilized and optimally managed, external debt could lead to debt overhang and crowding out of public and private investments including FDI (foreign direct investment) and thus retard economic growth. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of external debt on economic growth of Sudan using annual time series data for the period 1969-2017, which seems reasonably long enough period to capture such complicated effect of foreign capital flows including the most conventional types of external debt and foreign direct investments, together with implicit examination of various macroeconomic policy changes such as economic liberalization declared and adopted since 1992, depreciation of exchange rate pursued since 1978 and more recently inflation targeting and expansionary monetary policies.
Gum Arabic more than emulsifier and food additive; a new experimental validation of anti-proliferative against Breast Cancer (Ahmed. A. M. Elnour, N. A. Kabbashi, Md Z. Alam, Djabir Daddiouaissa and Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, International Islamic University, Malaysia and Khalid H. Musa, Qassim University, KSA)
Ahmed. A. M. Elnour, N. A. Kabbashi, Md Z. Alam, Djabir Daddiouaissa and Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, International Islamic University, Malaysia
Khalid H. Musa, Qassim University, KSA
Abstract: This study is on Acacia seyal gum, which is a plant exudate from Talha (Acacia seyal) tree. It provides a rich source of non-viscous soluble fiber that is used traditionally in folk medicine. Aims: The antiproliferative effect (APE) of Acacia seyal gum (ASG) and Prebio-T-commercial (PTC) samples of methanol crude extracts (MCE) on MCF-7 cell lines, and their antioxidant activities (AA) were investigated. Methods: The MCE of both ASG and PTC were fractionated into acetone and methanol fractions. Each fraction was examined to their APE on MCF-7 cell lines using SRB-assay. The MCE and their active fractions were studied for their composition using GC-MS/MS technique. Results: The most APE was detected in PTC of MCE (IC50=8.97µg/mL), compared to ASG (IC50=9.56µg/mL). Regarding total phenolic content (TPC) the MCE values (694±2.58mg GAE/100g for PTC), compared to the low value, (155.78±2.58 GAE/100g, for ASG). Both acetone and methanol fractions of ASG and PTC were found to be highly APE for the MCF-7 and resulted in the same value APE value of IC50 (12.54µg/mL) without any significant differences. The MCE of ASG was mostly dominated by Isovitamin C (42.37%), Crypton (5.86%), Hydroquinone (4.86%) as major components. Innovation and Conclusion: Overall, the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of extracts/fraction lend some evidence to their use in the traditional medicine for treating and preventing cancer as well as suggesting the potential use of their bioactive compounds of gum arabic as natural anticancer agents.
Keywords: Antiproliferative activity; Acacia seyal gum; Breast cancer; methanol extract/fraction, and GC-MS/MS.
Cinema is also political! (Mohamed Kamal Aldin, University of Bristol, UK)
Mohamed Kamal Aldin, University of Bristol, UK
Abstract: For more than a century, Western cinema has been projecting stereotypical images of the Middle-East and Sudan. Arabs are portrayed as billionaire Sheikhs, belly dancers and bombers who despise the western culture. Historical Sudanese heroes such as Mohamed Ahmed Al-Mahdi were represented as power-crazy, bloodthirsty madmen; while, General Gordon was depicted as a “real prophet” that Sudan needed to get rid of the ‘evil’ Al-Mahadi. The paper poses two questions in regard to this portrayal:
-The first question is whether this representation is orientalist
-The second question is how Arabs and Sudanese respond to this representation.
To answer these questions, the paper will analyse some Western, Arabic and Sudanese movies. It will shed light on the political context in which these movies were produced. The analysis will build on and engage with Micheal Foucault’s concept of “Regime of truth” and Edward Said’s work on Orientalism.
Food safety and inspection sector in Sudan; a prospective vision (Hisham Yousif Hassan, Food Safety and International Food Law Consultant, Canada)
Hisham Yousif Hassan, Food Safety and International Food Law Consultant, Canada
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the status of food safety and food inspection sector in Sudan and envision a more efficient system that would ensure the quality and safety of food, help improving public health and promote awareness about food and food safety in Sudan.
Design/methodology/approach: Compare food safety and inspection systems in Sudan with other systems in the world and try to find deficiencies, analyze them, and find better approaches and solutions to difficulties and challenges pertaining this vital sector by designing a new robust and more efficient system.
Results/Findings: Food safety and inspection systems in Sudan need to be improved to meet regional and international corresponding systems.
Originality/Value: In a new Sudan, we need to send a message to the world that Sudan is open for business. Improving our food safety and inspection systems would make our food products more competitive in regional and international markets. Additionally, it will help raising the level of consumers’ knowledge and awareness about public health, food products, food safety, and consumer rights.
Keywords: Food safety; food inspection; food safety in Sudan; food inspection in Sudan.

'ICT Applications and Digital Transformation (Mohamed Kamal, Huawei Technologies, Kuwait)
Mohamed Kamal, Huawei Technologies, Kuwait
In four months, Sudanese citizens have managed to remove one of the strongest Dictators and most violent regimes in the world with the use of simple Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications (Social media networks) to communicate, lead, manage, and plan the Glorious revolution. Those very same applications became the mainstream media in the absence or silence of all other media. What we can achieve if we properly planed, executed and leveraged the power of ICT applications in Sudan? Since, it has already proven its effectiveness and high adaptability in Sudan revolution. The prominent widespread of the mobile phones and internet as part of the ICT rapid development, reflects both human and economic development. However, its full potential has not been yet utilized and reflected in the quality of life, education, health, marketing, and shopping leading to strategic opportunities development. Opportunities that we need to classify, study, and capitalize on and start with the quick wins.
Implementing a nationwide ICT Strategy requires creating a motivating environment, different type of partnerships and seeks a win-win situation or value to the country, citizens and all the different stakeholders. This can be achieved by incorporating sustainability as a source of competitive advantage to articulate a flexible, imaginative strategic intent to accommodate future opportunities. The success of this intent can be benchmarked against several measures such as; ease of government services, lowering costs, transparency, safety, international marketing, Human capital development, health, elimination of bureaucracy, paperless processes (green initiative), Nurturing of SME segments and investment attraction. The beginning should be by establishing successful partnerships with professionals, telecom operators, international ICT hardware and software vendors, consultants, universities, local private and public sectors such as with National Information Center (NIC), Sudan e-Government, Microsoft, banks, Visa, Oracle, ministry and most important the citizens.
There are several good initiatives and eGovernment plan in Sudan to capitalize on. However, there are still several future development opportunities to be addressed by this track presentations and papers. However, we need to prioritize some of those applications and divide them into quick wins, short, medium and long term plans. The prioritization depends on mainly; urgency or Current situation necessities and capabilities (infrastructure and human capital). One of the suggested applications, is the establishment of a centralized governmental portal for managing all governmental tenders to increase transparency, competition, ensure fair chance to all bidders, and reduce corruption. Creating a nation-wide e-library is a great opportunity that enables students access learning materials, journals, books, classes, exercises and even exams anytime anywhere. In addition to, ICT applications can help manage employees, departments and even ministries Service Level agreements (SLAs) to increase citizens satisfaction and improve internal/external communications and collaboration. Human resource management system (HRMS) is of the essence as well to nurture and develop the right competence and expertise for each field or industry. HRMS importance stems as well from managing each individual performance and KPIs to increase our productivity and Human resources efficiency. Asset management importance is not even lower than the ones, and this is due to assets misuse, theft or it might even be a fake purchase. The list of ICT applications continues to cover other fields and industries such as public safety, cyber security, online payments, health systems and others.
Change the stereotype of Sudan and the Sudanese is an important goal in the near future to gain local and international trust, attract investors, demand respect, form international agreements and partnerships. ICT comes in place as an integral part of marketing communications and establish the interaction between Sudan new brand and its stakeholders. Marketing communication is important to educate stakeholders about brand new Sudan, build awareness, develop positive emotions or associations (brand image) to induce positive actions towards the new Sudan. Communication provides a two-way channel between a brand and its stakeholders to, evolve brand identity, and manage brand images. Social media provided a good platform for communication if managed properly by professional Public relationship (PR) team. Social media as a platform can, first, spread brand messages by online users, forming what is known as ‘viral-marketing’. Second, learn and adopt customers’ views. Thirdly, get recommended by users. Social media is one of the touchpoints with brand and other communications channels and experiences are brand touch-points that affect image formation. This has led to the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), to unify all messages across all touchpoints to create one image. Hence, ICT applications can help plan and manage a proper marketing campaign for new Sudan across all channels and enhance the different touchpoints such as TV, websites, online visa application online public service request or even simple hotel booking.
Communication and marketing play another important role in the change management to educate citizens about the new services and channels of communications. In addition to, several other measures and programs are required to guide all stakeholders to adapt to the new changes such as government personnel training. However, sometimes change face more resistance and special incentives and encourage competition between employees, departments and even between the different organizations. Best practises and experiences implement changes in different phases or gradually to avoid resistance and develop the required competencies. The recommendation is to establish a nation-wide government cloud that provides certain and common applications such as accounting, asset management and HRMS across all ministries and centralize competence development. This has several benefits, (1) increase efficiency of both hardware deployments and human resources, (2) short time to market the new applications, (3) lower human and operational costs, and (4) lower energy consumption. Specialized applications such as city command centre, health systems are to be deployed with the concerned ministry or organization. In another dimension, the first phase of ICT application involves mainly data collection, data storing and minimal data processing. However, future phases should consider data analytics to assist real time decision making, and lead the digital transformation journey to intelligence era.