J. E. MBAIWA, B. N. NGWENYA AND M. SETHORA, UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA, BOTSWANA
Abstract: Historically, the availability, selection and use of natural resources influenced settlement and migration patterns (including configuration of kinship networks) of different ethnic groups along the Okavango River in northwestern Botswana. Different ethnic groups in the Delta invariably use natural resources such as water, fish, wildlife, birds and non-timber forest products to sustain their livelihoods. Whereas international and regional instruments set a new agenda for sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources, different ethnic communities are impacted differently. This is synthesis paper based on state-of-the-art review of literate on the historical interactions between ethnicity and utilization of natural resources on the one hand, macro level governance (by international conventions, agreements and national policies) and on the other hand, local participation in community based natural resource management projects as a case study to demonstrate ethnicity, conflict and collaboration in utilization of natural resources in the Okavango Delta.
Keywords: Ethnicity, Community based natural resources management, Livelihoods, Okavango Delta